What is Roti: A Comprehensive Guide

A wooden basket full of wheat roti on a table

Roti, whether it's called chapati, paratha, or simply roti, is a versatile and cherished flatbread enjoyed by people around the world. It holds not just nutritional value but also a deep cultural and historical significance.

In this comprehensive article, we'll explore the world of roti, including its various types, nutritional benefits, the art of making it, and the reasons for incorporating it into your diet. Join us on this journey through the realm of this beloved flatbread.

What is Roti?

Wheat roti in a basket on a wooden table

Roti, a round, unleavened flatbread, holds a central place in numerous Asian and Caribbean cuisines. Comprising wheat flour, water, and sometimes a hint of salt, this bread is typically prepared on a hot griddle or open flame, resulting in a soft, slightly chewy companion to a wide array of dishes.

The Nutritional Benefits of a Whole Wheat Roti (per 100 gram of Roti)


Amount (approx.)







Dietary Fiber


Total Fat





B1, B2, B3, B6


Iron, Magnesium

Related Post - Calories in Roti & Other Nutrition Facts

Cultural and Historical Significance of Roti Across Regions

The origins of roti trace back to ancient civilizations, with diverse versions flourishing in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Caribbean islands. In these locales, roti extends beyond a mere food item; it is a cultural emblem, frequently utilized in religious ceremonies, festivals, and daily meals. While the method of preparation and serving may vary, the unwavering importance of roti resonates universally.

The Different Types of Roti Across Cultures 

Roti takes on various forms in different cultures. Here's a glimpse of some renowned variations:

  1. Phukla: This variant is a very common version consumed throughout India. It is typically made with wheat flour and water and sometimes has some oil and salt added to it. The one differentiating point for phulka roti is that the cooking process ends by allowing the roti to puff up on an open flame. It is often the thinnest version of the rotis eaten across India. 

    Phukla Roti

  2. Chapati: This is another version of the everyday Indian bread made from wheat flour. Similar to the phulka roti, slightly thicker, and instead of getting puffed on an open flame, it is typically cooked over a griddle or pan, often basted with some oil or ghee. It serves as a daily staple and complements curries and vegetables admirably.

    Wheat Chapati on a plate with a bowl of rice and mango shake in a glass

  3. Paratha: The layered Indian bread - paratha, famed for its multiple flaky layers, is a richer rendition of the everyday roti. Often stuffed with diverse fillings like potato, paneer, spices, and ghee, it indulges the taste buds and can also make for a standalone meal. 

    Paratha placed on a wooden board

  4. Caribbean Roti: In the Caribbean, roti adopts a unique character, typically manifesting as a flaky, buttery flatbread used to enfold hearty fillings such as curried vegetables and meats.

    Caribbean Roti

  5. Thai Roti: Thailand presents its own delightful twist on roti, a street food made from unleavened dough. It is often adorned with sweet toppings like condensed milk, sugar, and bananas.

    Thai Roti served in a plate with sugar in a small bowl

  6. Guyanese Roti: Guyanese roti is a unique take on this flatbread, frequently paired with curries, stews, or used to craft wraps teeming with an assortment of ingredients.

    Guyanese Roti placed on a plate on a wooden table

  7. Buss Up Shut Roti: Hailing from Trinidad and Tobago, buss up shut roti garners attention with its tattered appearance, resembling a "busted-up shirt." It is often accompanied by delectable curries.

    Buss Up Shut Roti on a plate

  8. Jamaican Roti:Jamaican roti seamlessly fuses Indian and Caribbean influences, featuring a flaky exterior enfolding scrumptious fillings like goat or chicken curry.

    Jamaican Roti

  9. Roti Canai:A Malaysia's breakfast favorite - Roti canai, boasts crispy, flaky layers. It commonly partners with daal (lentil curry) or chicken curry.

    Roti Canai served in a silver plate with chutney

Related Post - 15 Types of Indian Flatbreads

How to Make A Perfect Roti?

Tawa Roti traditionally involves hands-on craftsmanship. Here's a step-by-step guide to creating impeccable wheat rotis:

Making Wheat Roti by Hands

Preparing roti with hands

Making wheat rotis by hand is second nature to most Indian cooks. It is an art that most Indian households have mastered. India cooks everywhere perfect their roti-making skills, as without this staple, most Indian meals are incomplete. And, not just for Indian cuisines, but global cuisine and dietary habits are now moving toward fusion foods and various types of rotis are used to make rolls, wraps, and snacks. So, knowing how to make a roti is most certainly a valuable skill!

Ingredients and Tools Needed:

  • Wheat flour
  • Water
  • Pinch of salt
  • Rolling pin and platform
  • Griddle or tava


  1. Prepare the Dough: Combine wheat flour, water, and salt to form a soft, pliable dough.

    Making dough with hands

  2. Rest the Dough:Allow the dough to rest for 20-30 minutes to enhance its elasticity.

    Dough in a bowl

  3. Roll Out the Dough: Divide the dough into small portions, roll them into flat circles, and lightly dust with flour to prevent sticking.

    Rolling the dough into roti

  4. Cook the Roti: Cook each roti on a hot griddle or tawa until it puffs up and develops brown spots on both sides.

    roti on hot griddle

Up Your Roti-making Game with Rotimatic

Rotimatic is a revolutionary robotic roti maker that streamlines the roti-making process. With Rotimatic, you no longer have to go through the process of mixing and kneading the dough by hand, then rolling the dough to perfection, and then finally worrying about the right cooking temperature and wrist work to make sure the roti puffs. This robotic, automated machine is a blessing in disguise and does all the work for you.

All you have to do is add the ingredients in their proper containers and press a few buttons - viola - out comes the perfect rotis just as you desire, in just 90 seconds.

How to Make Rotis with Rotimatic

Step 1: Setup
Make sure your Rotimatic is all set up and ready to go. It should be plugged in and turned on.

Step 2: Prepare Ingredients
You'll need some whole wheat flour (atta), water, and optionally, a bit of oil. Have these ingredients within arm's reach.

Step 3: Fill the Rotimatic
Open the top lid of your Rotimatic. Pour the whole wheat flour into the flour container and water into the water container. The machine will handle the measurements.

putting flour with a wooden spoon in rotimatic machine

Step 4: Customize Settings
On the Rotimatic's touchscreen, you can customize your rotis to your liking. Adjust the thickness, roast level, and the number of rotis you want to make.

Rotimatic machine with a display indicating roti making settings

Step 5: Preheat
Press the "Start" button and let the Rotimatic preheat. It'll take a few minutes to heat up and get ready for action.

Step 6: Watch the Magic
Once preheated, the Rotimatic takes over. It kneads the dough, rolls it into roti discs, and cooks them – all automatically. You can just sit back and watch the magic happen.

Step 7: Collect Rotis
As each roti is ready, it'll be pushed out onto the tray. Open the front lid and collect the warm, fresh rotis one by one.

Step 8: Add a Finishing Touch (Optional)
If you like, you can brush a little oil or ghee onto each roti while it's still warm for that extra flavor.

Step 9: ServeServe your hot, homemade rotis with your favorite curry, vegetables, or any dish you love.

Step 10: Enjoy!<
Now, sit down and savor the delicious rotis you've effortlessly made with your Rotimatic.

Step 11: Clean Up - After you've enjoyed your meal, turn off the Rotimatic and unplug it. Follow the manufacturer's instructions to clean the machine. Usually, you can disassemble the parts that come into contact with the ingredients for washing.

Just add ingredients and push a button to let Rotimatic give you gharwali rotis in just 90 seconds.

Order Today

The Advantages of Consuming Roti as Part of Your Daily Diet

While moderation is essential in any diet, roti boasts numerous health benefits that make it an amazing choice:

  1. Vitamin Supplement

    Roti contains essential vitamins such as B1, B2, B3, B6, calcium, mineral salts, iodine, potassium, and vitamin E, elevating its nutritional quotient.

  2. Heart Health

    Roti's high fiber content facilitates optimal blood circulation and helps regulate cholesterol levels. The absence of excessive oil in most recipes further promotes heart well-being.

  3. Digestion Driver

    Wheat-based rotis facilitates easy digestion and includes bran, which fosters regular bowel movements and may provide protection against irritable bowel syndrome.

  4. Improved Skin Tone

    Rotis contain zinc, contributing to improved skin quality and a radiant complexion.

  5. Helps with Body Temperature

    Incorporating rotis soaked in milk during fever episodes represents a comforting and nourishing choice, potentially reducing body temperature and bolstering vitality.

Gluten-Free Roti Alternatives and Their Nutritional Profiles

For individuals with gluten sensitivities, several gluten-free roti alternatives beckon. Here are some substitutes and their nutritional profiles:

  1. Jowar Roti:
    Crafted from sorghum flour, jowar roti is gluten-free and brims with fiber, protein, and essential minerals.

  2. Bajra Roti:
    Bajra roti derives from pearl millet flour, offering a gluten-free option replete with nutritional richness.

  3. Ragi Roti:
    Ragi, also known as finger millet, forms the basis of ragi roti, which stands gluten-free, abounds in calcium, and serves as a dependable source of dietary fiber.

Uses of Roti

Roti holds cultural significance in various regions and communities. It often takes center stage in rituals, festivals, and celebrations, symbolizing nourishment, togetherness, and heritage. Its influence extends far beyond its South Asian origins. It has inspired and adapted into other cuisines worldwide. Mexican tortillas, Middle Eastern flatbreads, and Ethiopian injera all share similarities with Roti, showcasing its global appeal.

Let's explore the diverse roles that roti plays in the culinary world:

  1. Basic Nourishment

    At its core, roti serves as a fundamental source of nourishment. In South Asian countries and beyond, roti is a primary source of carbohydrates, fiber, and essential nutrients. It forms the foundation of countless meals, providing sustenance to millions of people.

  2. Accompaniment

    Roti shines as an accompaniment to an array of dishes. In Indian cuisine, it's often served alongside flavorful curries, hearty dals (lentil dishes), and an assortment of vegetables. Some classic pairings include roti with aromatic butter chicken, creamy paneer tikka, or spicy chana masala.

  3. Wrap or Roll

    One of the most versatile uses of roti as a wrap or roll. It's the perfect vessel for encasing fillings of all kinds, from grilled meats and vegetables to sauces and condiments. Whether you're enjoying a burrito, shawarma, or a simple roti roll, its soft and pliable nature makes it an ideal choice.

  4. With Dips and Condiments

    Roti serves as an excellent vehicle for scooping up dips and condiments. Whether it's hummus, a tangy chutney, zesty salsa, or a cooling yogurt-based sauce, roti adds a satisfying textural element to the experience.

  5. Snacking Start

    When cut into smaller pieces and seasoned, roti transforms into a delightful snack. Roti chips or nachos, whether baked or fried, offer a delicious alternative to traditional potato chips or tortilla chips.

  6. Breakfast Buddy

    Roti isn't limited to lunch and dinner; it can also make a hearty breakfast. Try it with eggs, use it as a base for breakfast pizzas, or wrap up your morning favorites in a roti for a delicious breakfast burrito.

  7. Sweet Variations

    Roti isn't just savory; it can also be sweet. A simple preparation involves spreading sugar and ghee on a warm roti, creating a delightful dessert. Additionally, roti can be used to make sweet dishes like "Roti Halwa" or "Roti Kheer," adding a touch of sweetness to your meal.

  8. Creative Recipes

    Don't hesitate to get creative with Roti in the kitchen. Try making Roti quesadillas, roti pizzas, or roti sandwiches, experimenting with different ingredients and flavors to suit your taste.

The beauty of roti lies in its adaptability. You can personalize roti-based dishes according to your preferences, exploring the endless possibilities that this humble flatbread offers. Incorporating roti into your culinary repertoire can open up a world of flavors and experiences. From its humble beginnings as a dietary staple to its presence on global menus, roti's versatility makes it a beloved and cherished food item around the world.


  1. What is the best flour for making roti?

    The finest flour for crafting roti is whole wheat flour, also referred to as atta.

  2. Can I make roti with non-wheat flours?

    Certainly! A range of non-wheat flours can be employed to concoct gluten-free rotis, each imparting distinct flavors and nutritional advantages.

  3. Can roti be a part of a keto or paleo diet?

    Traditional wheat roti is incompatible with keto or paleo diets due to its carbohydrate content. Nevertheless, gluten-free alternatives like jowar or almond flour roti could be contemplated.

  4. How do I store roti dough and rotis?

    Roti dough can be preserved in an airtight container in the refrigerator for 2-3 days. As for cooked rotis, they can be stored wrapped in a cloth or paper towel to maintain moisture.

  5. Are there automated machines or devices to make roti?

    Yes, the Rotimatic stands as an automated smart machine that simplifies the roti-making process.

  6. Is roti the same as naan?

    No, roti and naan represent two distinct categories of Indian bread. Roti is unleavened and typically prepared with whole wheat flour, while naan is leavened and fashioned from all-purpose flour and yogurt.

    Detailed Post: Roti vs. Naan

  7. How to reheat roti?

    To reheat roti quickly, use the microwave. Wrap it in a damp paper towel and heat for 20-30 seconds on medium power. Adjust the time based on your microwave's wattage.

Final Thoughts

Roti, in all its forms and variations, transcends cultural boundaries, offering a delicious and nutritious foundation for countless meals. From its rich history to its health benefits, this versatile flatbread continues to be a beloved staple in kitchens worldwide. So, whether you savor the simplicity of a classic chapati or experiment with fusion recipes, remember that roti is not just food; it's a cultural treasure worth celebrating.